Lean and Agile Projects
Lean and Agile Projects
No More Chaos – The Future Belongs to the Lean Construction Site
Objects are left lying around; trade contractors get in each other’s way; in some rooms no progress is made for weeks. With construction projects, waste of materials, time, and labor is a big issue. Rework delays construction progress and pushes up costs. Often the planned completion deadline can only be met at a high monetary cost by implementing ‘firefighting’ measures or by cutting down on quality.
But no company can afford, or is willing to tolerate, chaotic construction processes any more. Faster, better, more efficient: companies are increasingly applying the rules of their core business as a principle for their construction and real estate projects. Construction departments in industrial manufacturing companies are among those discovering agile and lean methods for planning and implementing their construction projects.
The More Complex, the Leaner – Lean Raises Project Management to a New Level
The lean method lends itself particularly well to large, challenging projects involving several participants. Instead of setting out an overall schedule based on experience, Lean focuses on the process as a whole. This is developed by all the participants together. They concentrate on sequences, dependencies, and preliminary work (input). This creates mutual understanding and enables potential risks to be identified considerably more quickly.
Once the overall process is established, the process planning follows. The project team adds timings to the processes and creates a process flow. This shows up dependencies and the future construction progress can be visualized, adjusted monthly, updated and continued.
The detailed plan functions as a visual control tool for site management and contractors on the construction site. Construction progress is smooth and steady, yet participants can respond flexibly if there are any changes.
Lean – Well Established in the Manufacturing Sector, But Just Emerging in the Construction Sector
The lean thinking of today originates from the Toyota Production System developed by Taiichi Ohno. The main principles of the lean approach are:
- Focusing on the client and the value-added process
- Eliminating waste
- Increasing efficiency
- Setting standards
- Reducing costs
- Establishing a continual improvement process
This gives rise to principles for the manufacturing process: continuous flow manufacturing, a ‘pull’ system, production leveling, takt-time planning and the zero defects principle. These can be adapted so that construction projects can also benefit from lean thinking.
Instead of a conveyor belt, as is typically used in industrial manufacturing, in construction projects there is the ‘trades train’. Lean experts divide a building into areas requiring equal amounts of work. Lined up one after the other in the right order, the individual ‘trains’, representing the individual trades, go through the building in takt time until it is completed. There are no idle times or delays. The result is a smoother, more consistent and swift construction process without any bottlenecks.
Agile Planning, Stable Execution – How Agile and Lean Work Together
For works to proceed smoothly and steadily, meticulous planning is needed. This can be creative and flexible, especially at the start. Agile design management can be used to overcome a multitude of obstacles to the working and project routine. The agile planning method was first used in software development. At the forefront of the method are the people, and their close collaboration in cross-functional teams with few rules.
The following are some of the problems resolved by agile design management:
- Unclear schedules
- No understanding of the tasks done by others
- Tasks or problems lost in emails
- Unclear and uncoordinated interfaces
- Wrong assumptions, bad planning
- Continuous changes
There is an overall process analysis, process planning, and task management (Scrum). The Scrum Board acts as a visual task control tool. Aids such as sticky notes make progress and current tasks directly visible to all participants.
The Solution: Lean Construction
With LCM®, Drees & Sommer transfers the lean principles from the manufacturing industry and the agile methods from software development to construction processes and projects. The greatest impact of LCM becomes apparent when it is used consistently in all phases of a construction project. Lean design management and target value design in the planning process, lean site management on the construction site, a lean supply chain and construction logistics, process optimization in the workplace, and training of staff – all this is part of Lean Construction.